2014年8月11日 星期一

i.e. e.g. 和 etc. 的用法

《Using “i.e.”, “e.g”. and “etc.”》即,例如,等等

The marks “i.e.”, “e.g”., and “etc.” are frequently used in writing and can serve a specific purpose(特定用途). These marks are often used inappropriately(不適當and have vastly different meanings. Let’s take a look at each one of these and discover what each one really means and how each one should be used in writing.
Note that the terms “i.e.” and “e.g.” are written with “.“ after each letter. While some writers will omit(忽略) the “.”, it is best practice to include it.  Also note that all three terms are written in the lower case(小寫).

O etc.


The term “i.e.” is the abbreviated(縮寫form of the Latin term that means “that is”. In English this term is inserted into(插入) a sentence to define(定義) a previous word or statement more clearly. Note that “i.e.” is not used to list several examples, it should only be used to provide information about a term or statement in the sentence. See some examples below on how to use “i.e.” correctly.

Sasha will speak next about everyone’s favorite topic, i.e., when we will get our bonus.
We must face our toughest(最艱難的) challenge in the market, i.e., how to attract younger customers.

In the first sentence, the writer more clearly defines what “everyone’s favorite topic” is by inserting “i.e.” and providing more detail. In the second sentence, the writer more clearly defines the “toughest challenge in the market”.


The term “e.g.” is also borrowed from Latin and means “for example” in English. Use this term when you are providing many examples of a group or category(類別) that was previously mentioned(前面提到地). Note that when “e.g.” is used, it does not indicate(表示) we are stating(陳述) everything in the group or category; we are only giving a few examples. Take a look at the correct use of “e.g.” below.

The client wants us to take immediate action, e.g., hold a press conference(召開記者會), issue a press release(發佈新聞稿), etc.
Please prepare everything you need for the client presentation(簡報), e.g., slideshow, notebook, proposal, etc.

Note: Do not use “e.g.” at the beginning of a sentence. If you want to say “for example” at the beginning of a sentence, write it out.


“etc” means “and so forth” or “and others” and can be used to show that there are more in a  group.  In the examples above for “e.g.” you can see the correct use of “etc.” Note that “and” is not needed before “etc.”

X We need paper, pencils, pens, and etc.
O We need paper, pencils, pens, etc.

More examples of the correct use of “etc.”

There are many things we can do to increase share, hold a media campaign(媒體宣傳), increase distribution(布局), use more digital media(數位媒體), etc.
The new salary package(薪酬方案 ) includes a raise(加薪), a company car, guaranteed bonus(保證紅利), etc.

Note that “and” is not needed before “etc.”

Source: FamousContent-brain